BIO MEDICAL WASTE


BIO MEDICAL WASTE:-

Biomedical waste, also known as infectious waste or medical waste is defined as solid waste generated during the diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or production of biological products for humans or animals. Biomedical waste may also include waste associated with the generation of biomedical waste that visually appears to be of medical or laboratory origin (e.g., packaging, unused bandages, infusion kits, etc.), as well research laboratory waste containing bio molecules or organisms that are restricted from environmental release. Biomedical waste may be solid or liquid. Examples of infectious waste include discarded blood, sharps, unwanted microbiological cultures and stocks, identifiable body parts, other human or animal tissue, used bandages and dressings, discarded gloves, other medical supplies that may have been in contact with blood and body fluids, and laboratory waste that exhibits the characteristics described above. Waste sharps include potentially contaminated used (and unused discarded) needles, scalpels, lancets and other devices capable of penetrating skin.

Biomedical waste is generated from biological and medical sources and activities, such as the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of diseases. Common generators (or producers) of biomedical waste include hospitals, health clinics, nursing homes, medical research laboratories, offices of physicians, dentists, and veterinarians, home health care, and funeral homes. In healthcare facilities (i.e., hospitals, clinics, doctors, offices, veterinary hospitals and clinical laboratories), waste with these characteristics may alternatively be called medical or clinical waste.

Biomedical waste is distinct from normal trash or general waste, and differs from other types of hazardous waste, such as chemical, radioactive, universal or industrial waste. Medical facilities generate waste hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. While such wastes are normally not infectious, they require proper disposal. Some wastes are considered multi hazardous, such as tissue samples preserved in formalin.



    Standards for Waste Autoclaving :-

    Standards for Liquid Waste, Microwaving and Deep Burial :-



    SCHEDULE-1, CATEGORIES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTE :-

    SCHEDULE II, COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES :-

    SCHEDULE-V, STANDARDS FOR TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES :-


Bio Medical Waste Management Process:-

The hospital waste like body parts, organs, tissues, blood and body fluids along with soiled linen, cotton, bandage and plaster casts from infected and contaminated areas are very essential to be properly collected, segregated, stored, transported, treated and disposed of in safe manner to prevent Nosocomial or hospital acquired infection:-

   =>  Waste collection
   =>  Segregation
   =>  Transportation and Storage
   =>  Treatment & Disposal
   =>  Transport to Final Disposal Site
   =>  Final disposal


   Status of Pathology Labs/Private Hospitals/Veterinary Hospitals/ Govt. Hospitals (Year 2013-2015)

Need of Bio Medical Waste in Hospitals:-

The reasons due to which there is great need of management of hospitals waste such as:-

  1.   Injuries from sharps leading to infection to all categories of hospital personnel and waste handler.
  2.   Nosocomial infections in patients from poor infection control practices and poor waste management.
  3.   Risk of infection outside hospital for waste handlers and scavengers and at time general public living in the vicinity of hospitals.
  4.   Risk associated with hazardous chemicals, drugs to persons handling wastes at all levels.
  5.   “Disposable” being repacked and sold by unscrupulous elements without even being washed.
  6.   Drugs which have been disposed of, being repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers.
  7.   Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly due to waste, or due to defective incineration emissions and ash

Penalty and Recommendations:-

PENALTY FOR CONTRAVENTION OF THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT AND THE RULES, ORDERS AND DIRECTIONS

  1.   Whoever fails to comply with or contravenes any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules made or orders or directions issued there under, shall, in 278 respect of         each such failure or contravention, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or         with both, and in case the failure or contravention continues, with additional fine which may extend to five thousand rupees for every day during which such failure          or contravention continues after the conviction for the first such failure or contravention.
  2.   If the failure or contravention referred to in sub-section (1) continues beyond a period of one year after the date of conviction, the offender shall be punishable with         imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years.

RECOMMENDATIONS

HCFs should ensure that segration of Bio-Medical Waste should be noted at the point of generation in accordance with these rules:-

  1.   Training should be given to staff of HCFs by Health Department and State Pollution Control Board for the proper implementation of BMW Rules.
  2.   Every HCFs should also train their staff for the proper implementation of BMW Rules.
  3.   Each HCFs should designate one person for the management of BMW Rules.
  4.   State Pollution Control Board should also designate separate official at Head Office and each Regional Office for the regulation of BMW Rules.
  5.   Bio-medical waste should not be allowed to mix with other Municipal Solid Waste.
  6.   Housekeeping staff wear protective devices such as gloves, face masks, gowned, while handling the waste.
  7.   There is biomedical waste label on waste carry bags and waste carry trolley and also poster has put on the wall adjacent to the bins (waste) giving details about         the type of waste that has to dispose in the baggage as per biomedical waste management rule. Carry bags also have the biohazard symbol on them.






Address-
ENVIS Cell, Uttarakhand Environment Protection & Pollution Control Board,
29/20, Nemi Road, Dalanwala, Dehradun-248001 (Uttarakhand).